Hexachlorobenzene-induced hyperparathyroidism and osteosclerosis in rats.


Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) exposure has been shown to alter the normal concentrations of parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in rats and to result in osteoporosis in humans. Experiments were undertaken to investigate the effects of HCB on the homeostatic mechanism of calcium metabolism and to determine its effect on bone in rats. Fischer 344 rats were dosed 5 days/week for 5, 10, or 15 weeks with 0, 0.1, 10.0, or 25.0 mg HCB/kg body wt. Body weight was not affected by any of the exposure conditions. Liver weight was significantly elevated above control values at the two higher dose levels at all three time periods. Kidney weight and kidney-to-body weight ratio were significantly elevated at the highest dose level after 10 weeks and at the two higher dose levels after 15 weeks of exposure. Serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly decreased at the two higher dose levels after both 10 and 15 weeks of exposure. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 was measured in the 5-week exposure group only and was significantly elevated in the three higher dose levels. After 5 and 15 weeks of HCB exposure, parathyroid hormone concentration was significantly elevated at the two higher dose levels at both time periods. Wet femur density was significantly increased at the two higher dose levels of HCB after 10 weeks of exposure and the three higher dose levels after 15 weeks of exposure. Dry femur density was also increased in the cases where wet femur density was increased. However, femur weight was not affected at any dose level. The results from this study indicate that HCB induces hyperparathyroidism in rats, as demonstrated by increased serum parathyroid hormone levels and osteosclerosis of the femur.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)


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